21 December 2004

milestones in the evolution of the EIS

The pursuit of excellence@EIS

significant milestones in the evolution of the EIS

1. opening of the Birmingham High Performance Centre, at Alexander Stadium

2. national workshop

3. give the staff a broad glimpse of the expertise within the ranks

medical insurance for student athletes

Sports school well-covered@asiaone

The Singapore Sports School provides more comprehensive insurance coverage for its students.

08 December 2004

single-subject research review article

My new review article will be published in Sports Medcine.

Kinugasa T, Cerin E, and Hooper S. Single-subject research designs and data analyses for assessing elite athletes' conditioning.Sports Med 34: 1035-1050, 2004




07 December 2004

joint research = IAAF + WADA

IAAF plans joint research with WADA@sportbusiness

The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) plans to conduct joint research with the world anti-doping agency WADA as it seeks further firepower in the battle against doping.

01 December 2004

UK sport funding for Beijing

UK Sport Statement on Funding

Future funding of sports will take account of both past performances, which demonstrate whether the sport has a winning formula, and future potential.

talent management company

TALENT MANAGEMENT COMPANY LAUNCHED@sportbusiness

Sportacus has set up a new company, Sportacus Talent Management, to develop commercial deals for sports and entertainment stars.

23 November 2004

new sports in Olympics

New sports touted for Olympics: Rogge

New sports could be introduced in future editions of the Olympic games, but only on condition that an equal number of disciplines is dropped.

The golden numbers are 300 events, 28 sports, 10,400 athletes at most

19 November 2004

"Google scholar" instead of PubMed??

Google scholar

Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research. Use Google Scholar to find articles from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles available across the web.

Check this out.

origin of running

Endurance running and the evolution of Homo@Nature

endurance running is a derived capability of the genus Homo, originating about 2 million years ago, and may have been instrumental in the evolution of the human body form

15 November 2004

successful grant applications

The secrets of success@Nature

Decisions of successful grant applications are made by weighing up five factors:

1. significance
2. approach
3. innovation
4. investigator
5. environment.

11 November 2004

Sports Libraries

Sports Libraries and Special Collections--Compendium@resourceshelf

Greetings, sports fans. This list started as a discussion between two librarians in a sports bar, about "cool places we would like to work."

05 November 2004

a case of Sports Institute - University linkage

Flexibility boosts student athlete success@UQ

The University of Queensland at Australia maintains a holistic approach to developing our future leaders by supporting them to achieve both academic and sporting success

Sports Institute - University linkage

Sport Development Centre@Loughborough Univeristy

Loughborough University has been chosen to be part of the English Institute of Sport, which in turn will work closely with the other home country networks and the United Kingdom Sport Institute. The Institutes are charged with supporting those sports performers and their coaches, who are working at the very highest (World) level, or have the potential to do so.

Elite Athlete Friendly University Network

Higher learning aids sports excellence@ASC

The Elite Athlete Friendly University Network will provide support and assistance to elite student athletes to meet their academic needs. This includes support and assistance for athletes’ study options, assessment, enrolment and course related needs.

29 October 2004

WADA Doping Statistics 2003

Doping stats released by WADA@UK Sport

As is the case in the UK, football is the most tested sport in the world, with 20,104 samples being analysed. This is ahead of athletics (18.876) and cycling (12,352). Among Olympic sports, the percentage of adverse findings in relation to the number of tests if highest in cycling (3.93%) and boxing (3.68%).

28 October 2004

next advances in biology = system biology!

All Bio Systems Are Go@Wired

systems biology is a burgeoning field which aims to understand the workings of the nuts and bolts of living organisms through the interactions of the thousands of pieces of DNA, RNA and proteins that network together in each cell of our body.

18 October 2004

13 October 2004

UK Sport launches Elite Coach

UK Sport launches Elite Coach@UK Sport

The scheme will see tailor made programmes developed for each of the nine coaches, which will not only allow them to develop their technical skills by working with and observing the best in action, but also to develop the leadership skills which are the hallmark of the most successful operators, not just from the world of sport, but from the world of business, industry and the arts.

UK Sport hopes that the £500,000 per year programme will produce 60 elite British coaches by 2012.

11 October 2004

Postgrads choose industry over academia

Postgrads choose industry over academia@Guardian

More than half of PhD students turn their backs on the academic life and head for jobs in industry

think differently

shaping the future@Guardian

The Eden Project is more than just a botanical garden, says its creator. It is a place where people are encouraged to think differently. John Vidal hears how Tim Smit now hopes to use his inspirational vision to effect wider social and environmental change.

...

Smit's secret, if there is one, seems to be that he can bring people of very different disciplines and skills together, get them to brainstorm and collaborate, and come up with the extraordinary. The Eden Project, he says, has attracted locals by the score, but also high-flying artists, businessmen, architects, scientists, engineers, educationalists, horticulturalists and ecologists from all over Britain.

08 October 2004

PE classes the key to future health

PE classes the key to future health

Professor Doune Macdonald and PhD student Jessica Lee from the School of Human Movement Studies at The University of Queensland, believe the focus of school physical education (PE) should be to nurture “physical literacy” and PE should be compulsory from preschool to Year 12.

06 October 2004

ITF DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT LAUNCHES DEVELOPMENT WEBLET

The Development Department of the International Tennis Federation (ITF) has launched a new weblet on the official ITF website, purely dedicated to the ITF Development programme. The Development weblet can be found at www.itftennis.com/development.

The weblet contains information on the ITF’s worldwide Development programme, including detailed information on the activities undertaken around the world and details on the programme’s support from the Grand Slam Development Fund and Olympic Solidarity. Complete information on the national programmes which are available to the ITF member nations is also provided.

The Development programme is supported by 9 Development Officers who are based around the world and their section provides a summary of their role in the Development Programme, in addition to detailed news and latest events from each of the Development Officers’ individual regions.

The weblet also provides information on the ITF Junior Tennis Initiative which encompasses the School Tennis Initiative and Performance Tennis Initiative programmes and there is a Player Development section, providing full information on player training opportunities through ITF training centres and ITF organised training camps and detailed information on international competition.

Finally the news section, where you will find the latest news and news archive in relation to Development activities taking place around the world,completes the range of information available at www.itftennis.com/development.

22 September 2004

Sport Science Myths Demystified - What Do The Experts Say?

Sport Science Myths Demystified - What Do The Experts Say?

Can longer rackets increase your service percentage? Should you apply the same swing speed for both your first and second serves? Will playing tennis make you a mentally tougher person? And are bagels just as good to eat as sports energy bars? The USTA's Sport Science team demystifies several of the myths surrounding tennis exercise and nutrition.

15 September 2004

U.S. Open Puts Serve in Server

Wired News: U.S. Open Puts Serve in Server

Viewers can drill down to match statistics like first-serve percentages or unforced errors, which are recorded live by on-site statisticians, and quickly jump from match to match or watch several matches simultaneously.

09 September 2004

What does it really take to make it in professional sport?

Talent Development in Sports and Science@Science's Next Wave

to be an sports psychologist

Olympic Inspiration@Science's Next Wave

Ben Brennan, Psy.D., was trained as a clinical psychologist. When he visited a friend during the '96 Olympics, in Atlanta, he realized that sports psychology was what he wanted to do. Now Brennan treats athletes with performance enhancement techniques as well as through more traditional clinical therapy in the New York/New Jersey area.

Postgraduate Scholarships in Sydney

ICESSM Home

The new International Centre of Excellence in Sports Science and Management
(ICESSM) at Sydney Olympic Park invites interested individuals to apply for
up to 6 PhD or Masters scholarships in Sports Science and Sports
Management. Commencing in 2005, these scholarships provide an exciting
research opportunity for Australian and international students to study at
either The University of Sydney or The University of Technology, Sydney.

31 August 2004

genetically modified cattle to athletes?

Building Better Bodies@NY Times


12 August 2004

11 August 2004

genetic research in JISS

Japan Institute of Sports Sciences to search for Olympic Gold gene

The goals of the research are to discover gene sequences that play a major role in creating athletic ability and to establish a database based on genetic research into Japanese gold medalists.

06 August 2004

Olympic votes 'for sale'

IOC member 'selling votes'@BBC

An International Olympic Committee member agreed to help a fake bid to bring the 2012 Olympics to London for cash, the BBC's Panorama reports.

what are the limits?

what are the limits:Olympics@Nature

-Top of the world

-Beating the drug cheats

-A breed apart

-The medals and the damage done

-Heat-stopping action

-Gasping the victory

sports science in Science magazine

Science Magazine special issue - Sports Science: Testing Human Limits

- Careers in Sport Science: Resources
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/07/28/9
Web sites to find more information about the field

- The American Sports Medicine Institute
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/07/28/5
The American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) located in Birmingham,
Alabama, is unique in that it offers training to both those interested
in a career in sports medicine research and in clinical practice. The
students and research staff at ASMI are dedicated to the Institute's
mission: to improve the understanding, prevention, and treatment of
sports-related injuries through research and education.

- Finding the Right Track After Your Sports Science Degree
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/07/28/4
Tinaz Kumana is a sports science graduate from last year, and although
she estimates herself lucky enough to have found challenging and
stimulating work within the field, she is very aware of the struggle
faced by the many graduating into this area of work.

- Diary of a Sports Medicine Intern
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/07/28/7
One of the American Sports Medicine Institute's (ASMI's) former
students came all the way from Australia to learn about the biomechanics
of baseball. She writes about her research experience at ASMI and how it
has helped her all along in her career since. She is now a postdoctoral
fellow at the University of Western Australia.

- My Journey Out From Under the Stairs
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/07/28/6
Stephen Seiler, a transplanted American now living in Norway, has
always been fascinated both by sports and science. He tells us how he
allied the two with a PhD in exercise physiology from University of
Texas, and how unforeseen events helped him get closer to the sports
part of sports science when his career seemed set to follow the basic
medical research path.

- Talent Development in Sports and Science
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/07/28/3
Nick Holt, 2 years into his first postdoc, works in sport psychology,
and received the "Dissertation of the Year" award last year from the
Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (the main
professional body in this field). His research is in talent development
- what it takes to make it as an elite athlete, and this surely bears
some analogy with science careers. He did his Msc in the UK, PhD in
Canada, and has worked in both Canada and the UK since graduating.

- Keeping your Finger on the Pulse: Sport Science in Europe
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/07/28/10
Overview of the field in Europe, re. training and job opportunities.
Based on a report from the International Council of Sports Science and
Physical Education in Berlin


04 August 2004

28 July 2004

23 July 2004

WADA's 2003 Annual Report

WADA's 2003 Annual Report now available@WADA

The report focuses on the acceptance and consequences of the World Anti-Doping Code. It also contains details on WADA's activities last year in all priority areas, such as research and testing, as well as the year's financial reports.

UK internships for sports science and medicine graduates

sports science and medical talent targeted@UKSI

English Institute of Sport
Strength and Conditioning (3 positions)
Performance Analysis (2 positions)
Physiology/Sports Science (1 position)

Welsh Institute of Sport
Strength and Conditioning (1 position)

20 July 2004

key questions for a business plan

How to Write a Business Plan@the scientist

What have you got?
Who is going to buy it?
Why will they buy my product rather than another one?
What is it going to cost, and what is the projected return?
How will your business be run?
Who are the people who will run it?

16 July 2004

an event to discuss sportning future

Australian Sports Commission Events: Our Sporting Future 2005

what: focus on addressing key topics and issues in sport today and provide delegates with practical information they can apply to their business.
when: 2 to 4 March 2005,
where: Sydney Convention Centre, New South Wales, Australia

UK drug testing lab

new drug testing lab for UK@UKSI

UK beccomes one of only three countries in the world to have more than one WADA-accredited lab

05 July 2004

IMG unveiled the plans to develop sports talent in Asia

IMG's passage to India@SportBusiness (need to register)

IMG Academies Bharata to unveil plans for Hyderabad complex@IMG Academies News

IMG Academies unveils master plan for sports complex@Hindu Business Line


Can laboratory-based tennis profiles predict field tests of tennis performance?

J Strength Cond Res 18:136-143, 2004

height, maximum minute ventilation, and isokinetic strength measurements significantly and positively affected ball velocity

12 steps for grant writing

How to Get Help Writing Grants@the scientist

1. Focus your idea
2. Find a funding agency
3. Write your specific aims
4. Rewrite your specific aims
5. Write the body of your grant
6. Get a writing critique
7. Get a scientific critique
8. Rewrite as necessary
9. Complete supporting regulatory paperwork
10. Complete budget workup
11. Get signatures
12. Submit

no more sweaty HR monitor

Tech Company Gets Hypersensitive@Wired

one of the first remote sensing devices that can provide readings from several feet away without physical contact

no more sweaty heart monitor straps and no more grabbing handles while running on a treadmill -- the device could get a signal through a wristband or a patient's feet

02 July 2004

scientists named Google as the top resources

Péter's Digital Reference Shelf

librarians and scientists were asked to name the top scientific and medical search resources that they use or are aware of, "scientists named Google, Yahoo! and PubMed" as the top three resources. That's quite a surprise, knowing that scientists of the developed world, especially in the hard sciences, are very well-served by gigantic full-text searchable, interlinked digital journal archives of scholarly publications.

29 June 2004

cooling down for tennis players

Performance Strategy Doesn’t End at Match Point@USTA

•cool-down exercises: non-weight bearing, active and passive stretching

combined with deep breathing exercises

15-20 minutes after intense play

•recovery and regeneration

re-hydrate, carbohydrates (50-60g/hr), massage, contrast baths

0.3 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body weight immediately after a practice or match
3-4 grams per pound of body weight within the following 24 hours

25 June 2004

RPE-based training load

Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 1042-1047, 2004

Use of RPE-Based Training Load in Soccer [Abstract]

the HR-based training load and session-RPE were statistically significant (from r = 0.50 to 0.85, P < 0.01)

systems model and training

Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 942-948, 2004

Applying a systems model of training to a patient with coronary artery disease [Abstract]

the fit between real and model exercise tolerances was significant

anabolic and catabolic processes for soccor players

J Strength Cond Res 18: 121-128, 2004

Changes in exercise performance and hormonal concentrations over a big ten soccer season in starters and nonstarters [Abstract]

players entering the season with low circulating concentrations of T and elevated levels of C can experience reductions in performance during a season, with performance decrements exacerbated in starters over nonstarters

overtraining and HRV

J Spors Med Phys Fitness 43: 506-512, 2003

Night heart rate variability during overtraining in male endurance athletes [Abstract]

HRV during sleep does not seem to be a valid marker of overtraining

psychol Q and hormones

Br J Sports Med 38: 260-263, 2004

Salivary testosterone and cortisol in rugby players: correlation with psychological overtraining items [Abstract]

Testosterone concentration is influenced by tiredness,
and is therefore a valid marker of tiredness

overtraining and serotonin

Int J Sports Med 25: 150-153, 2004

Abnormal serotonin reuptake in an overtrained, insomnic and depressed team athlete [Abstract]

the severe overtraining state could have been related to decreased serotonin reuptake in the brain and signs of major depression

22 June 2004

grass roots rugby

World Cup surplus directed to grass roots @Sports Vine

The Australian Rugby Union (ARU) has announced it will spend $18million over the next two years to boost grass roots rugby across Australia.

aim = to create new clubs, boost participation, improve the skills of our young players and help volunteers do their job

allocation
•TryRugby, EdRugby & volunteer support $4.7million
•Club Creation and Support Initiative $1.6million
•Strategic Funding for Member (state) Unions $5million
•Elite Player Development Program $4.5million
•Customer Relationship Management $2.7million
•Super 12 & Junior Development promotion $1.05million
•True Colours Tour & EdRugby 2003 $3million
•Capital Management Strategy $20million

full detail of Five Year Plan in ARU website

18 June 2004

AIS and environmental strategy

AIS takes up Greenhouse Challenge@ASC

goal = to cut emission of greenhouse gases by 490 tonnes a year

strategies
•using power-saving settings for personal computers
•fine-tuning air-conditioning
•using energy-efficient lighting
•minimising and recycling waste products such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, toner cartridges, oils etc
•using economical four-cylinder cars, where possible
•reducing lawn areas

02 May 2004

a framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance

Sports Med 33: 1103-1126, 2004

a review paper of training system by Dr Smith from Canada

definitions of athletic shape, taper, performance preparedness, talent, recovery,training load, periodization, overtraining etc...






27 April 2004

talent ID and psychology

J Sports Sci 22: 395-408, 2004

talent needs to be reconceptualized so that talent identification and talent development processes are perceived to be dynamic and interrelated

can laboratory-based tennis profiles predict field tests of tennis performance?

J Strength Cond Res 18: 136-143, 2004

height, maximum minute ventilation, and isokinetic strength measurements significantly and positively affected ball velocity

world-rankings to predict swimming performance

J Sports Sci 22: 339-345, 2004

a top-10 ranked swimmer will substantially increase their chance of an Olympic medal

Australain R&D is dangerously low

Growing lag in research spending@ResearchResearch.com

Australian expenditure on on science and medicine continues to decline in comparison to our international competitors

big science means big opportunities

thinking big@Nature

The moral of Hubble's recent news is to evaluate the longevity of a big project before you sign on. And try to develop skills that will be relevant to another effort once that big project inevitably comes to an end.

23 April 2004

imitation learning

Neural Circuits Underlying Imitation Learning of Hand Actions: An Event-Related fMRI Study@Neuron

brain activities behind observation and imitation using fMRI

the basic circuit underlying imitation learning consists of the inferior parietal lobule and the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus plus the adjacent premotor cortex (mirror neuron circuit).

20 April 2004

science women get cinematic boost

@wired

Hedy Lamarr may light up the big screen once again,
this time for her contribution to science.
Another film on the co-discoverer of DNA, Rosalind Franklin,
is in development. By Kristen Philipkoski.

19 April 2004

the miserable pay of most US postdocs

US postdocs: Young, gifted ... and broke@Nature

what's needed, say postdoc activists, are policies to ensure that postdocs receive proper training and career guidance designed to aid their transition into independent researchers supervising their own students and fellows

alternative to Web of SCIENCE@ISI?

Scopus.com

Elsevier is currently developing a bibliographic database product
called "Scopus", which is due to release later this year

stragetic vs tactical thinking

stragetic thinking= comprehensive, long-term, theoretical

tactical thinking= more liminted, practical, concrete actions to be taken

16 April 2004

14 April 2004

great workplaces have high levels of trust

great place to work institute

a great workplace is measured by the quality of the three,
interconnected relationships that exist there:

(1) the relationship between employees and management


(2) the relationship between employees and their jobs/company


(3) the relationship between employees and other employees.

want to be an entrepreneur?

Glittering prizes@Naturejobs

more PhD students and researchers have begun participating
to develop their business ideas and pick up key contacts
in the venture-funding world

13 April 2004

how to succeed in business

Naturejobs

academic and industrial science are increasingly linked,
young scientists could use more training to compete
with their business-school colleagues

26 March 2004

a video for coaching + management

Success, Lions and videotape: Matthews' secrets for sale@The Age

four-time AFL (Ausutralian Football League) premiership Brisbane Lions coach Leigh Matthews

Matthews' coaching experience as an instructional tool for business

It is more about individuals investing in the team cause in the belief that their individual needs will be met through team success

audio broadcast for Majour League Baseball games

baseball joins media slugfest@wired

Major League Baseball inks pacts with Microsoft and AOL to carry live audio and video, plus various highlights packages.

19 March 2004

conference on elite performance

from Sportsci.org ML

THE ANALYSIS OF ELITE PERFORMANCE IN ITS CONTEXT ?
24 - 26 november 2004, INSEP, PARIS, FRANCE

Symposium
•The analysis of training: a qualitative stake in the preparation to elite performance.
•The analysis of elite performance in a competitive context: questions and methods.
•Simulation : A new instrument in research, training and education?
•The role of the context in the analysis of the activity in elite sport.
•Symposium: The analysis of the systems producing elite performance: the example of the delegations attending the Olympic Games.

17 March 2004

lab management

Making the Right Moves: A Practical Guide to Scientific Management for Postdocs and New Faculty

can download the following chapters from the website.

Chapter 1 Obtaining and Negotiating a Faculty Position and Planning for Tenure
Chapter 2 The Scientific Investigator Within the University Structure
Chapter 3 Defining and Implementing Your Mission
Chapter 4 Staffing Your Laboratory
Chapter 5 Mentoring and Being Mentored
Chapter 6 Time Management
Chapter 7 Project Management
Chapter 8 Data Management and Laboratory Notebooks
Chapter 9 Getting Funded
Chapter 10 Getting Published and Increasing Your Visibility
Chapter 11 Understanding Technology Transfer
Chapter 12 Setting Up Collaborations
Chapter 13 Course in Scientific Management

11 March 2004

08 March 2004

shoulder rotation characteristics in professional tennis players


Int J Sports Med 25: 154-158, 2004


The dominant arm (playing arm) had a significantly greater range of external rotation than the non-dominant arm

The internal rotation showed a significant deficit as compared to the non-dominant arm

27 February 2004

best places for Postdocs to work

Best Places to Work for Postdocs 2004@the scientist

KEEPING POSTDOCS HAPPY: TOP TEN WAYS
1. Comprehensive collections of journals and books
2. Scientific career preparation
3. High quality research tools
4. Smooth communication in the lab
5. Quality research
6. Supportive colleagues
7. Well-maintained buildings
8. Scientific mentoring from PIs
9. Lab technical support
10. University services

how to get faculty positions?

Faculty Positions 1: Finding The Right Fit@Science Career

25 February 2004

work experience@sports academy

i have started work experience at the Queensland Academy of Sport (QAS).

QAS provides elite athletes with expert coaching and cutting-edge support services.
The academy will also be the only state-sponsored Centre of Excellence for Applied Sport Science Research.

QAS has now re-located from South Brisbance to Nathan (old ANZ [QEII] stadium) with bigger and better facilities.

i look forward to challenge myself here.

16 February 2004

13 February 2004

advice for postdoc

Science careers

Postdoctoral Opportunities I ? Academic Initiation

• broader tr = grant writing, laboratory management, communication and presentation skills, and ethics and the responsible conduct of research
• cross-disciplinary process = interdisciplinary, collaboration
• criteria for selection = management + communication + personality
• finding the right location = key is to follow your passion

number of students@UK = sports sci > physics + chemistry

Daily Telegraph

universities fear science courses will disappear

10 February 2004

biological markers for overtraining

Pathol Biol

nothing special in this review and similar to review papers such as this and this.

we need a breakthrough paper which can lead to a new paradigm in the field of overtraining.

30 January 2004

60% of people trusted uni scientists

unexpected results@Guardian

Scientists often think the public will believe anything when it comes to
new research, but studies show that this viewpoint is unproven

28 January 2004

finally...

i have submitted PhD thesis today.

it was nearly 3 years of hardworking.

the story of my thesis is:

1. individual differences exist in response to elite athletes' conditioning (training + recovery activities)
= used single-case research designs
2. their training load, recovery, performance, and performance readiness are fluctuating daily
= used randomization tests to analyze mean differences between training phases
3. the fluctuation has trends
= used time series analysis (e.g. ITSACORR)
4. coaches and sports scientists want to predict athletes' performance and performance readiness
= used mathematical models (e.g. dynamic factor analysis and structural equation modeling).

i strongly believe my approach will change the way we assess elite athletes' conditioning.

it's not over yet (needs 2 months of thesis examination),
but feels great to accomplish something really BIG!

thank you all for your support.

22 January 2004

juggling alters the structure of human brain

nature 427: 311-312, 2004

the subjects showed a structural change in brain areas that are associated with the processing and storage of complex visual motion after 3 month of training

12 January 2004

what makes a champion swimmner?

talent identification

short distance: tall stature and long segment lengths
breathstroke + long distance: the shorter and stockier body builds

08 January 2004

physiological models to understand adaptations

1. caridiovascular/neural recruitment model
2. energy supply/depletion model
3. musle recruitement/muscle power models
4. biomechanical model
5. psychological model

(Tim Noakes)

06 January 2004

what is science?

science is the organized, systematic enterprise that
gathers knowledge about the world and condenses
the knowledge into testable laws and principles
(Edward O Wilson)